Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite, then transmitted by the bites of an infected mosquito. However, approximately, 1.5 million confirmed cases are reported annually by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), of which 40–50% is due to Plasmodium falciparum.
Though Malaria is one of the curable diseases if one starts effective treatment as early as possible, delaying its treatment may end up to serious consequences,even death.
Parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria. Although we have many species of Plasmodium, only five infect humans and cause malaria. They are as follows below:
In tropical and subtropical areas; major contributor to deaths from severe malaria
Likewise in Asia and Latin America; has a dormant stage that can cause relapses
Also in Africa and the Pacific islands
This is worldwide ; and can cause a chronic infection
Throughout Southeast Asia; can rapidly progress from an uncomplicated case to a severe malaria infection.
The life cycle of the falciparum malaria parasite is complex. When an infectious mosquito feeds on a human being, it injects parasites (called sporozoites) into the bloodstream, therefore travel directly to the liver where they mature for about 6 days. At this stage, there are no symptoms of disease in the person who has been infected.
Malaria may occur from an infected mosquito with the Plasmodium parasite if bites you. However there are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum.
P. falciparum causes a more severe form of the disease and those who contract this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother may possibly pass the disease to her baby at birth. This system is known as congenital malaria. Malaria is not only transmitted by blood but also can be transmitted through (a) organ transplant (b) transfusion (c) use of shared needles or syringes
A malaria infection is generally characterized by recurrent attacks with the following signs and symptoms:
• Joint pain
• Hemolytic anemia
• Hemoglobin in the urine
• Retinal damage
• Bloody stools
• Abdominal pain
• Shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe
• High fever
• Profuse sweating
• Mosquito repellents – apply it to your skin, especially to all exposed areas, and clothing. For your skin, opt for a repellent that contains at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.
• Use camphor as a repellent- you can light camphor in the room with all the doors and windows closed. Leave it for about 15-20 minutes to keep the mosquitoes away. You can also use the lemon and clove technique- just stick some cloves in a half-sliced lemon and keep it near your bed while you sleep.
• Use a mosquito bed net while sleeping.
• Wear long-sleeved shirts, pants, and socks.
• Avoid exercising outdoors as mosquitoes get attracted to sweat.
• Empty and clean all containers that hold water such as flower pots, flower vases, and animal dishes – at least once a week – to prevent mosquitoes from breeding at your house.
• Keep your surroundings clean, ensuring that there is no stagnant water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes.
Triple T wishes you sound health!